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Polishing Patina

by Judy Ellis, Wire-Sculpture.com

Daily Wire Jewelry Tip March 04, 2015

Ultra-Polish Pad and Metal Brush for polishing patina finishes.

We’ve been discussing patinas and finishes over the last week or so… Today I wanted to share two short videos from our good friend Kate Richbourg at JewelryTools.com.

Kate gives you some quick tips on using the Ultra-Polishing Pad* and a Metal Brush to help polish those pieces that you’ve just antiqued with Liver of Sulfur.

Ultra-Polishing Pad:

These convenient sized Ultra-Polish Pads are great for removing tarnish, highlighting when using liver of sulfur or silver black, or polishing to a high luster, fast and easy. Leaves no residue. They are made of thin, tight-bond foam with permanently bonded micro-abrasives. A handy, economical polisher that is truly amazing. Squares are 2" x 2" and sold in packs of 20.

Kate is referencing the Pearl Polishing Pads.  At JewelryTools.com we carry the Ultra-Polishing Pad, which is the same type of product.

Metal Brush:

This brush is excellent for cleaning or surface texturing on soft metals. It consists of 4 rows of brass bristles in a wooden handle. Made in Germany; 8-5/8″ long.

Pick up your Ultra-Polishing Pads and Metal Brush today!

Happy Wrapping!

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by Judy Ellis, Wire-Sculpture.com

Tool of the Week for March 2, 2015

This week we feature our Wax Casting Supplies

Looking for wax casting supplies and accessories? Look no further! We have you covered from wax to wax molds and wax injectors!

Today we feature a few of our Wax Casting Supplies from our sister site JewelryTools.com.

What is Wax Casting?

Lost-wax casting is the process by which a duplicate sculpture or jewelry piece (often silver, gold, brass or bronze) is cast from an original sculpture. The “lost wax” technique is so called because the wax model is destroyed in order to create the piece. The technique is sometimes called the “lost mold” technique because the mold, too, is destroyed in the process.

Wax Working Tools:

Below we feature a selection of tools that are necessary for any beginner to advanced artisan.

Wax Worker

Wax Worker

This Electric Wax Worker features a heavy duty steel body with comfortable non-warming hand piece. The hand piece is designed with eight individual non-flammable wires to provide optimal flexibility and heat resistance. It is made of lightweight fiber to stay cool and accommodates most tips of other wax workers. A sturdy handpiece holder is located on the top right of the machine.The control box on this unit delivers precise heat and can be precisely varied for different waxes and effects.



Here you’ll find Kate Wolf silver and gold toned wax. The carving wax is flexible and may be polished to a beautiful smooth finish. Wolf Wax is carvable, machinable and strong. Wolf’s repair wax is easy to blend built-up and repaired sections of wax.

The touch-up wax fixes imperfections and is easily scraped-off and trimmed. Freeman has been producing injection wax for over 30 years. Their wax has been the industry standard for quality and excellence.



If you’re in the market for a new crucible, or two, look no further! You’ll find ceramic and graphite crucibles for your convenience.

Our ceramic crucibles are perfect for centrifugal casting machines and are made of fused silica with a clay bond. The graphite crucibles are made for electric melting furnaces. We have many different products to help you in your metal melting and all of your casting needs.

Melting Dishes

Melting Dishes

Melting dishes are incredibly helpful for melting and pouring metals such as gold, silver and so much more. These dishes are made of fused silica with a clay bond.

These dishes can be used with a torch for melting points up to 2,500 degrees Fahrenheit, and are specifically designed for use with platinum. The set of 4 dishes can be used up to 2,800 degree Fahrenheit. These can also be purchased individually.



Casting molds are a necessity for every wax and lost wax jewelry artist. These will complete your jewelry work bench and they don’t take up much space.

These will fit either in a small corner of your work space or attached to the edge of a table. Our three part mold frame is made from high-grade aluminum and offers the convenience of having a combination of seven mold frames at your disposal

Silicone and Rubber

Silicone and Rubber

When it comes to silicone and rubber for jewelry making, we’re your one stop shop. Our 4X gold silicone mold rubber is a premium grade, soft silicone rubber with wax release and tear resistance. This mat is intended for intricate designs and for hand cutting.

Our rubber pre-cut mold release delivers controlled shrinkage and excellent cutting qualities. These mats are available in flex, firm and low shrink and in strips.

For more information about Lost-Wax Casting – pick up this book today!

Lost Wax Casting: Old, New and Inexpensive Methods, By Dr. Fred R. Sias, Jr.||PUB-135.00

Lost Wax Casting: Old, New and Inexpensive Methods, By Dr. Fred R. Sias, Jr.

This book is a basic introduction to lost-wax casting with emphasis on jewelry making. Designed to be used as a textbook and as a reference book, it is excellent for beginners as well as experienced casters. Heavy emphasis is placed upon understanding why things are done in a particular way, rather than simply presenting a set of ‘cookbook’ rules that will always work.

Happy Wrapping!

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What is Patina?

Daily Wire Jewelry Tip February 27, 2015

What is Patina?

After we posted our Liver of Sulfur tutorial on Monday, we had quite a few questions come in from our readers. So, today I thought we’d address a these questions.

What is patina?

Patina is a film that develops on the surface of metal over a period of time. Due to exposure to open air and the natural process of oxidation, an aged metal such as copper and silver tends to develop a patina. Because it can take from days to years for patina to occur naturally, we can speed up the process for jewelry-making purposes and create the patina ourselves. One of the more commonly used patinas is Liver of Sulfur (LOS).

Liver of Sulfur:

Liver of Sulphur Gel, 2 Ounce Bottle

Liver of Sulphur Gel, 2 Ounce Bottle

Formulated for extended shelf life, versatility and convenience, this gel makes it easy to use and less mess with better results. May be used in concentrate or diluted in warm water for desired effect. 2 oz. squeeze bottle. Non-hazardous.

Liver of Sulfur 4 oz

Liver of Sulfur 4 oz

Liver of sulfur is traditionally one of the best oxidizers for silver and other metals. It produces a durable black finish. Simply dissolve in hot water. 4 oz jar comes in lump form.

Ultra-Polish Pads, 5 pack

Ultra-Polish Pads, 5 pack

These convenient sized Ultra-Polish Pads are great for removing tarnish, highlighting when using liver of sulfur or silver black, or polishing to a high luster, fast and easy. Leaves no residue. They are made of thin, tight-bond foam with permanently bonded micro-abrasives. A handy, economical polisher that is truly amazing. Squares are 2″ x 2″ and sold in packs of 5.

5 Types of Patina:

Here are five additional Patina finishes that you can achieve with a little experimentation. The following techniques begin with the basic process of using Liver of Sulfur. Additional materials or tools are listed.

1. Traditional Antiquing: Black crevices, bright highlights)

Additional supplies:

Scratch brush a piece and burnish it or tumble for 45 minutes or more to a mirror finish. Use the LOS to patina the piece to a dark black. For faster results, work with hotter temperatures and longer soaking, and build color gradually versus doing it in one big jump. After a final soapy rinse, dry the piece and rub “highlights” off with a polishing cloth. See the drama and depth that you have created!

2. The look of hematite:

Additional supplies:

This method will take the “Traditional antiqued” method to the next level, coloring the metal a reflective, deep gray-to-black similar to the mineral hematite. After applying the patina, you may choose to remove or not remove highlights with a polishing cloth. Put the piece in the tumbler, add 1-2 tablespoons of hand soap or the recommended amount of a burnishing solution, and then add water to about an inch above the shot. Tumble for 20-30 minutes. Wow, what sheen!

3. Steely gray/blue-gray brushed finish:

Additional supplies:

  • Non abrasive hand soap

Progress through coloring a piece until you reach a gray or blue-gray. Use a steel or brass brush and a bit of hand soap to scratch brush the surface for a steely effect. More brushing will lighten the color, and a stiff brush will be more aggressive than a soft one. This is a soft and subtle patina that can have a sophisticated look!

4. Layered color:

Additional supplies:

Use any LOS recipe to develop one or two shades past gold or light brown, stopping with a cold-water bath. Brush or selectively remove color from portions of the piece with a polishing cloth. Then, wash in soapy water to remove hand oils and polish, and then dip again in LOS. You’ll notice the un-removed patina will continue to darken, while the area where the patina was removed becomes gold.

Also, try detailing the LOS in selected areas. Put the piece on a cup warmer and apply LOS with the brush. Be sure other areas have no LOS residue on them or they will darken as well. Before detailing, wash the piece in the sudsy, baking soda water mix.

5. Iridescent effects:

Additional supplies:

  • Ammonia

Adding a tablespoon of ammonia to the LOS solution kicks the process up a notch. Colors intensify and have an iridescent effect. Gold’s become brighter, blues more saturated, and the purples pop. Ammonia, in my opinion, adds an additional element of wonder because it seems to make the LOS solution more “sensitive.” You are likely to get a tonal range instead of flat color. For instance, a pink area may have a subtle pink to bright magenta. If you are particularly interested in a specific effect, a test piece may be in order. Be adventurous and watch how a kick of color can change your whole piece!

Now let’s answer a few additional questions:

1. Will Liver of Sulfur patina to gold-filled metals?

  • No, gold alloys will not react to most sulfur solutions.

2. Will Liver of sulfur give patina to fine silver?

  • Yes, the copper content in silver reacts with the LOS to result in a patina. Even though fine silver is 99 percent silver, it has sufficient copper to result in a beautiful patina.

3. Will Liver of sulfur patina to brass?

  • No, Brass will not react to most sulfur solutions.

4. Will Liver of Sulfur patina to copper?

  • Yes LOS will patina copper but you would use cold water.

5. Will Liver of Sulfur affect gemstones?

  • Cubic zurconia, glass and man-made gemstones will be unharmed by LOS.
  • Most natural gemstones will be unaffected with some exceptions. Turquoise, Lapis, shell, pearls and other soft stones should not come into contact with LOS as they are porous and could be damaged.

What about Metal?

We also had a couple of questions about metal and what kind you can use and the types of finishes it would produce. Below is a quick reference guide to the range of colors possible when used with a specific metal type.


Range of color possible

Fine Silver Straw gold, green, pink, blue, purple, gray and black
Sterling Silver Straw gold, green, pink, blue, purple, gray and black
Argentium sterling silver Straw gold, green, pink, blue, purple, gray and black
Brass Brown to black tones
Bronze Brown to black tones
Copper Brown to black tones
Gold None to very pale brown depending on karat
Platinum None
Aluminum None
Stainless Steel None
Niobium None
Titanium None

If you love using Liver of Sulfur – pick up some today and get started on your next project!

Happy Wrapping!



More about Liver of Sulfur

FAQ’s about Liver of sulfur

A Jewelry Artist Guide to Liver of Sulfur Patinas and Finishes

Liver of Sulfur Finish

by Judy Ellis, Wire-Sculpture.com

Daily Wire Jewelry Tip February 25, 2015

Liver of Sulfur Finish

We’ve been discussing patina’s and finishes around the office the last few days.. so today, I thought I’d re-visit an older post about using Liver of Sulfur to give your jewelry pieces an antique look.. This is an easy process which can give your wire work a great finish!

What is Liver of Sulfur?

Liver of sulfur, also spelled liver of sulphur or just LOS, is a quick and easy (although stinky!) way to patina copper and silver. Liver of sulfur, though, will give your copper and silver jewelry a beautiful antique look like the one featured below.

Quick Wired Bead Ring by Albina Manning

Note: there are 2 types of liver of sulfur available on the market: gel and “rock” or solid form. I highly recommend the gel form, available here: Liver of Sulphur Gel, because the gel dissolves in warm water much faster, making the process (and the smell!) faster than ever.

Here’s a little tutorial that will show you how easy it is to use liver of sulfur!

Materials needed:

  • Liver of Sulphur Gel
  • Water in a glass or plastic cup (I recommend disposable)
  • Paintbrush
  • Fine (#0000) Steel Wool and a Dust Mask
  • Paper towels and/or rags
  • Disposable Gloves that will keep your fingers dry
  • and of course, the pieces you want to patina!

Step 1. Clean your piece and set up your equipment. Plan ahead of time where you’ll process your jewelry, and remember that it will smell like eggs. I set up out on the porch, with the house door closed.

Supplies for a liver of sulfur patina

A cup with water, Liver of Sulfur Gel, #0000 Steel Wool, Gloves, and a Paintbrush.

Step 2. Read the directions on your package. For the gel form of liver of sulfur. Typical directions will ask for warm, not hot water, that you can still put your finger in and not be burned. An easy way to do this is simply place the water in the microwave for 20-30 seconds. The amount of water you’ll need depends on how much jewelry you’ll be patina-ing, but a small cup with about 8 ounces of water will easily do dozens of earrings.

Step 3. Take the water out of the microwave and bring it to your work station. Remember, this should be outside or in a well-ventilated area! Now, put on gloves: you don’t want to touch liver of sulfur to your skin. Add your liver of sulfur to the water (check your directions for how much) and stir with your paintbrush. With just a small cup (about 8oz), about 5 drops of liver of sulfur is strong enough. You can always add more gel. If you aren’t using the gel form, you will have to allow time for the liver of sulfur to dissolve. It will be bright yellow when it’s ready.

Liver of Sulfur solution

Stir the Liver of Sulfur solution to mix it

Step 4. Here’s the fun part: in goes the jewelry!
It’s up to you to use tweezers or tongs, or to simply pull the jewelry out of the liver of sulfur solution with your gloved fingers. If you used a lot of liver of sulfur, the jewelry will turn black almost immediately. If you used less, you may have to let it sit in the solution for up to a minute.

Wire jewelry about to be dipped in liver of sulfur

Hint: If you have items you don’t want the liver of sulfur to touch, such as pearls, use a paintbrush (or even a q-tip) to only apply the liver of sulfur to the area of the piece you want to have patina.

Painting liver of sulfur on copper with a paintbrush

Step 5. Remove the blackened jewelry from the liver of sulfur. Let sit on a towel or rag to dry.

Copper wire jewelry blackened with liver of sulfur

Step 6. When dry, use #0000 fine steel wool to erase some of the blackened finish, revealing a lovely antique look.

Hint: Fine steel wool can “shed,” so do this over a work surface. I use a paper towel to hold the steel wool so I don’t get poked! Safety note: it’s a good idea to wear a dust mask while using steel wool.

Polishing liver of sulfur with steel wool

Step 7. Rinse with clean water, and let your piece dry. Leave as-is, or seal with wax like Renaissance Wax to protect your new patina. Now, admire your work!

Finished copper butterfly necklace with liver of sulfur finish

Finished copper butterfly necklace with a liver of sulfur finish.

To dispose of the liver of sulfur, simply pour it slowly down the drain with lots of running water. An even safer method is to shake baking soda into the liver of sulfur to neutralize it, then pour it down the drain (good for old pipes).

Pick up some Wire and your Liver of Sulfur today and get started on your next project!

Happy Wrapping!

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by Judy Ellis, Wire-Sculpture.com

Product of the Week for February 23, 2015

This week we feature our Beading Wire

What is a Beading Wire?

Jewelry beading wire is ideal for all your beading projects! Whether you’re adding beaded details to a wire wrapped ring or bangle, or if you’re beading a bezel pendant, this bead wire will hold your design.

How to use Beading Wire?

Stringing beads on beading wire is one of the most popular methods for making beaded jewelry. It’s also one of the simplest – which makes it a great for beginners. Once you get the hang of bead stringing, the creative possibilities for make beaded necklaces and bracelets are endless.

How to get started with beading wire:

1. Gather your beads and plan your design; When you use a variety of different types of beads, colors and sizes, you might want to use a bead board to help keep them all sorted out. That way you can try out different combinations before you get started to see what looks the best. You can string just about any type of bead on beading wire.

2. Gather your beading supplies: In addition to your beads you will need some simple supplies: crimp beads (appropriate size for your wire), crimping pliers, chain nose pliers, round nose pliers, wire cutters and a ruler or yard stick. You may also need end findings or clasps depending on your design.

Below I’ve put a quick example of a beaded necklace – that easy to make with any kind of wire including Beading Wire or Memory Wire.

Irradiated Quartz Necklace

Why purchase a new necklace to go with a favorite outfit?  Make one instead!  To make this piece, use 22g square half-hard wire in 4-inch long pieces.

  • To begin, make a wrapped loop at one end of a piece of wire
  • Add the beads and then make another wrapped loop at the other end.
  • For the next and following beaded segments, wrap each loop into the preceding and the following segments.
  • To finish the necklace, a simple S hook and large jump ring form the clasp, or add your favorite!

Beading and Memory Wire:

Beading Wire is a must have for any workbench! Want to know more about using Beading wire – take a look at our Wire Jewelry Books today!

Happy Wrapping!

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